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Danger Close Subtitles English

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Fatal Diseases from People and PetsOur domestic pets can also pose real dangers to the wildlife within parks. Both pets and people may have diseases that they can give to wildlife. Sadly, there are many examples of wildlife in parks dying from diseases given to them by pets and humans. For example, heartworm from dogs and cats can kill wildlife such as foxes, wolves, coyotes, bobcats, and mountain lions. Black-footed ferrets die from the flu if humans are sick and get too close. Wolves can be infected by canine parvovirus from dogs. Pro tip: Keeping your pets vaccinated can keep them and wildlife safe.

A different body of research has shown detrimental effects of subtitles. This is often labeled the redundancy effect, as the reasoning is that because the subtitles are verbatim identical to the narration they are redundant and can only hinder the learning process (e.g., Mayer et al., 2001, 2003). This is in clear contrast to the findings of the current study, which estimates the effect of subtitles to be (close to) zero. Importantly, the English language proficiency of the students did not moderate the effect of subtitles, even though the study included participants with the full range of English proficiency levels. As noted before, it might be that the subtitles helped the students with lower proficiency levels to increase their understanding of English, but it did not affect their test performance. With the Bayesian analyses we showed that subtitles do not merely have an indistinguishable effect (e.g., a nonsignificant effect in frequentist statistics) but that there is strong evidence for the absence of a subtitle effect on learning and mental effort. While these conclusions are only based on the selection of videos used in the current study, it puts the generalizability of the redundancy effect in question by showing that it does not hold for these specific videos, but arguably also for a wider range of similar videos. More research is needed to further establish the potential (lack of) effects of subtitles on learning from videos; both in highly controlled settings as well as in real-life educational settings. Specifically, it is essential to study the generalizability of findings like the redundancy effect and establish boundary conditions. Even though the current study used four different videos, each with four different versions, this is not sufficient to be able to generalize to all kinds of educational videos. However, by manipulating the complexity of the videos, we were able to show that the null effect of subtitles cannot be explained by complexity or element interactivity (Paas, Renkl, & Sweller, 2003; Sweller, 1999). Furthermore, we compared the amount of evidence for a wide range of different models and found that every model that does not include a main effect of subtitles is stronger than its respective alternative model that does include subtitles. In addition, the within-subject design of the study severely reduces the plausibility of confounding participant characteristics. Finally, it is noteworthy that the current study only used second- language subtitles, meaning that providing subtitles in the native language of students can still have a positive effect on learning and accessibility (Hayati & Mohmedi, 2011; Markham et al., 2001).

Close calls and other things that indicate that danger is ... well close by. As the title already tells you, this is about the Battle of Long Tan. I was not really aware of that battle or what went down and who won (no pun intended). And I did not just pick this from my Prime to watch because one very well known Vikings actor is in it. It was fun to see him in something else than in a Vikings setting though.And he is front and center again in this one. He has to make decisions that have impact on not just him and his crew, but many others. Now war movies are tough to watch - but if they are as well made as this one, they are also quite beautiful (and yes I'm aware of the ir


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